Flame retardants are incorporated into polymeric materials either as additives or reactive materials.
Non-halogenated flame retardants are based on the elements phosphorus and nitrogen. The phosphorus-containing flame retardants are widely used in standard and engineering plastics, polyurethane foams, thermosets, coatings, and textiles. Phosphate esters are mainly used in engineering plastics, phenolic resins and coatings. Ammonium polyphosphate compounds are primarily used in intumescent coatings but are also effective in rigid and flexible polyurethane foams and injection moulded polyolefins, in formulations for unsaturated polyesters, phenolics, epoxies and coatings for textiles. Nitrogen based melamine cyanurate is used in nylon and in polypropylene intumescent formulations in conjunction with ammonium polyphosphate